Two iron bars are attracted to each other regardless of which ends are positioned near together. An electric field is created between the poles of a magnet, and this can be used to attract or repel objects with iron content. The force per unit area that acts along the axis of each bar is called "magnetic attraction".
Iron has one electron in its outer shell, and when these electrons are arranged in order of size, they form three regions with different amounts of spin: a head, body, and tail. If we consider only the nucleus of an atom, then it makes no difference which end of the iron atom is positive and which negative, because the nucleus itself is neutral. But if we include the electrons, then they are always found in pairs with opposite spins, so all the ends of an iron atom are equivalent. This means that if you put one end of an iron bar into a magnetic field, both ends will tend to move towards that region where the field is strong.
If you have two magnets and you bring them close together, they will automatically try to get as close to each other as possible. This is why toys with magnetic properties often have magnets inside them.
Due to the existence of magnetic force, the two pieces of iron attract each other. Two like poles repel each other, and two unlike poles repel each other. This phenomenon has been used for centuries in magnets. The strength of this force decreases as the distance between the objects increases.
In physics, there are four fundamental forces: gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. Of these, only electromagnetism and gravity can act over large distances (1mm or more). The other two forces are confined to a size scale much smaller than a millimeter-the strong nuclear force holds neutrons and protons together within atoms, and the weak nuclear force is responsible for radioactive decay. However, there are other interactions that occur at such small length scales that they are not classified as forces. For example, the electric charge of an electron is not observable; it is always accompanied by a corresponding positron. Similarly, the spin of an elementary particle cannot be observed; it is always accompanied by a partner with opposite spin.
Gravity is the weakest of these forces, but even though it is weaker than the others, it can still cause problems for scientists trying to create tiny devices.
Because iron is ferromagnetic, a magnetic field causes each particle to transform into a miniature bar magnet. The south pole of each particle subsequently attracts the north poles of its neighbors, and this process is repeated over a large region, forming chains of filings parallel to the magnetic field's direction.
Iron accumulates as iron ore, which is then processed into steel through a series of steps during the construction of new ships. During this processing, some particles are added to the molten metal mix as "filler" metals with which to strengthen the ship structure. Because these filler metals are also ferromagnetic, they too will be attracted to each other and to the surrounding materials in much the same way as an iron filing collection. Ships built before World War II may have been filled with stainless steel instead, but even these metals retain some residual magnetism.
The strength of this magnetization depends on two factors: how closely the particles are packed and how strong the original magnetic field was. If many layers of particles are stacked together, their fields add up to produce a very strong effect. On the other hand, if there are few layers of particles, then they won't be able to resist separation completely, so some residual magnetization remains.
Modern ships are usually given an extensive annealing program during their construction process to erase any remaining magnetizations.
Magnets attract iron because to the magnetic fields that they produce. When subjected to a magnetic field, the atoms' electrons begin to align with the flow of the magnetic field, magnetizing the iron as well. As a result, the two magnetic items become attracted to one another.
Iron is a ferromagnetic material. This means that when exposed to a magnetic field, its atoms will line up in parallel lines like little arrows pointing in the same direction. The more atoms that are aligned with the magnetic field, the stronger the magnetization of the iron object becomes. If the iron object is removed from the magnetic field, it will still retain its magnetism for some time after being removed.
The magnetic attraction between magnets and iron objects can be very strong. This is why a bar of iron can be used as a weight inside a toilet tank to balance out the water in the bowl. Even though the magnet is not large enough to fill the tank, its strength is sufficient to pull on the iron rod, causing it to sink down into the water below.
In science labs all over the world, students often experiment with magnets and iron materials. They conduct experiments to discover how magnets work at a molecular level and how this knowledge can be applied in technology. For example, computers store data on disks made from iron materials.
When introduced close to them, the majority of iron filings adhere to the center of a bar magnet. The reason is that the surrounding magnetic field of the magnet causes all the iron atoms in a given direction to point into the middle, so they all experience the same force. This is called "magnetic attraction".
Iron atoms have a very interesting property: they become polarized when exposed to a magnetic field. That means that if there's a net magnetic moment around some portion of an iron atom, then it will align itself with this magnetic field (unless another force acts on it). In other words, if you have many atoms with their axes all aligned in one direction, then they form a single large mass with a big impact factor (i.e., polarize themselves toward the middle) that can be felt by anyone standing next to them.
This is what happens when you put a piece of paper with iron filings on it near a bar magnet: the magnetic field of the magnet causes all the particles in the paper to point into the middle, so they all experience the same force. The paper becomes charged with magnetism and attracts more iron filings until it becomes saturated. At this point, no more particles will stick to it.
Magnets attract wood and iron-containing materials. When a magnet is freely swinging, one end always points east. Sedimentary rocks have the same qualities as magnets. The Earth and a bar magnet are similar in that they both have a magnetic field surrounding them as well as two magnetic poles. The difference is that the magnetic field of the Earth is fixed in place while that of a bar magnet can change because it's made of magnetite (a mineral with magnetic properties).
When a person walks through a cemetery, they often see trees williamed, shaped like crosses. This is because when magnets are placed under the arms of a william tree, their leaves turn to face north or south according to which way the magnet is placed.
Some people believe that if magnets are placed on graves then this would cause problems for those buried beneath. However, this is not true. The reason why this isn't true is because magnets work by connecting objects with each other. If an object such as a magnet was to be placed on top of a grave, it wouldn't go anywhere because there is no space underneath it where it could be moved to. Also, gravestones aren't made out of metal so they wouldn't attract magnets either.
People also think that if magnets are placed on graves then they would be able to reach up from below the surface and grab something else.