Hydrogen is a type of energy carrier that may be created from a variety of sources. As a result, hydrogen produced by renewable energy may directly substitute hydrogen produced by fossil fuels, while also substituting fossil fuels as feedstocks in a variety of processes. Renewable energy technologies include solar power, wind power, water power, heat from the sun or the earth, electricity from organic materials, and fuel cells.
Renewable energy sources such as sunlight, wind, rain, waves, heat from the soil or ocean, geothermal energy, and solar radiation are unlimited in supply, so they are considered to be zero-emission sources of energy. Some scientists believe that the only way to avoid disastrous climate change is to reduce the use of fossil fuels immediately. Recycling used oil or natural gas instead of producing new ones merely postpones the problem. A more effective solution is to convert our current fleet of cars into hybrids or electric vehicles. Hydrogen production from renewable energy could one day replace most conventional energy sources, but it is not ready for prime time yet.
The main advantage of using hydrogen as a fuel is its ability to produce no air pollution, although this advantage is also its main disadvantage - there would be no emission of carbon dioxide if hydrogen replaced all forms of fossil fuel energy today.
At the moment, the majority of hydrogen is created using fossil fuels, primarily natural gas. Currently, electricity from the grid or renewable sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, or biomass is utilized to create hydrogen. In the long run, solar energy and biomass can be utilized to make hydrogen more directly. Electricity from solar cells or wind turbines can be used to reduce water into hydrogen and oxygen, respectively.
The only other known source of hydrogen is from hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen. Soaring up in flames, boiling in water, melting at -78 degrees Celsius, and evaporating into space are some of the reactions that come to mind when thinking about what happens to gasoline when it burns. As you might expect, most hydrocarbon molecules are too stable to react with other substances; they just sit there inside oil and natural gas, which are the remains of decomposed plants and animals, respectively.
Hydrogen can be found in nature trapped inside rocks, but it is not part of any chemical compound. When rocks are formed by the pressure and heat of millions of years' worth of earth movements, they can contain small amounts of hydrogen (1-10%) because it is a very weak acid. Over time, most of this hydrogen escapes back into the atmosphere, but some is also lost due to radioactive decay. Hydrogen can also be found in space in huge quantities (up to 1% by volume).
The only alternative method that comes close to matching this production rate is ammonia synthesis using nitrogen from the air, but this process is not economical for large-scale applications.
There are also many scientific studies showing that the earth can be made more habitable for humans by reducing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. One method that has been proposed to do this is with the use of solar cells that convert sunlight into energy. Another is by growing plants on industrial waste products such as plastic bottles which transform them into useful materials. These are called "biomass" and they're used instead of fossil fuels when generating power. Finally, some scientists have suggested that hydrogen could be used as a fuel source in place of oil or natural gas because it is easy to make and very stable over time.
In conclusion, there are many ways that hydrogen can be obtained in nature or through human activity. They include the following: photosynthesis (plant life), water electrolysis (chemical), nitrogen fixation (microorganisms), and thermochemical processes (heat and pressure). Although most of these sources are non-renewable, some scientific studies have shown that biomass may be used as a replacement for some fossil fuel sources.