The entire amount of water on a planet is referred to as the hydrosphere. The hydrosphere comprises water on the planet's surface, beneath, and in the atmosphere. Water is a vital component of life as we know it, so understanding how Earth's water is distributed is important for understanding other worlds.
Water is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Therefore, it can be considered a "hydrogen oxide" because it contains oxygen as well as hydrogen. Air is composed of about 78% nitrogen and 22% oxygen by mass. Thus, air is a relatively poor transporter of oxygen because the ratio of oxygen to other gases is so high. However, since there are more molecules of nitrogen than those of oxygen, air does transport some oxygen.
Nitrogen and oxygen are both very good atmospheric gases because they do not bind with other substances and thus they can freely enter and leave cells through cell membranes. Other gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide are all bound with other substances inside cells and thus cannot exit the cells unless special proteins exist to release them.
In conclusion, air is a necessary component of the hydrosphere because it carries oxygen which organisms use to burn chemical energy and produce heat gas.
The hydrosphere of a planet might be liquid, vapor, or ice. On Earth's surface, liquid water occurs in the form of seas, lakes, and rivers. Underneath the surface, it exists as groundwater. In the atmosphere, water can exist in the form of clouds, precipitation, and frozen gases. Liquid water is necessary for life as we know it; without it, there would be no one around to experience science fiction stories like Star Wars or Avatar.
Water is essential to ensure that the right chemicals are present in the right concentrations at the right time for living organisms to function properly. It plays a role in almost all aspects of human activity: agriculture, energy, economics, environment, technology, and warfare include examples where water is involved. Water is also important to humans because we want it to do us good rather than harm; for example, when we swim or take a shower.
Water is responsible for some of the most amazing sights on earth. It forms rainbows after being spilled from buckets full of children or sprinklers. It fills our oceans and streams and makes flowing bodies of water attractive places to visit or live. It helps plants grow and animals reproduce. And if it weren't for water, many of these creatures wouldn't have anything to eat or drink!
The hydrosphere is the total mass of water found on, beneath, and above the earth's surface. Water in liquid and frozen form in groundwater, seas, lakes, and streams is included. The ocean covers approximately 75% of the Earth's surface, an area of 361 million square kilometers. Of this, about 3.5 million km2 is covered by ice. The remainder is water.
The average depth of the world's oceans is 3600 m (12000 ft), but depths as great as 11,500 m (37,500 ft) have been measured in the deepest parts of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean.
The highest peak in the hydrosphere is Mount Everest, with 8848 m ( 29497 ft). Other high peaks include Kilimanjaro (5895 m), Elbrus (4642 m), Aconcagua (3932 m).
The lowest point in the hydrosphere is the bottom of the Mariana Trench at 3955 m (13250 ft). Other deep holes include Lake Baikal in Russia and the Dead Sea in Israel.
Of all the land masses on Earth, only two are completely submerged under more than 50 feet of water: Greenland and Antarctica. Most of Europe, Asia, and North America are comprised of continental shelves over which the sea reaches up to 1000 m (3300 ft) deep.