The Red Sea-Dead Sea Conveyance (RSDSC), also known as the Two Seas Canal, is a proposed pipeline that would connect the Red Sea coastal city of Aqaba to the Lisan region on the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea level reduction is producing substantial local environmental issues, such as sinkholes and retreating sea coastlines. The RSDSC is meant to alleviate some of these issues by directing water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea.
The idea of linking the two seas dates back to at least 3000 B.C., when Egyptians built a canal from the Nile to the Arab Peninsula to transport fish from one body of water to another. In 1875, an Ottoman official named Mustafa Kemal proposed a similar plan called "The Dividing Line Project". The British government showed interest in the project, but it was not pursued because they did not want to help the Ottomans with their defense problems. In 2001, Israeli and Jordanian scientists published an article in Nature magazine proposing to build a pipeline from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea through the desert regions of both countries. This idea has since been taken up by several other groups, including the Royal Society-UNESCO Global Science Partnership. The most recent proposal was made by Abrar Al-Fakhri and colleagues from the University of Jordan in Amman.
The Red Sea (Arabic: lbHr l'Hmr Al Bahr al Ahmar; Hebrew: Yam Soof ym svp or Hayam Haadom hym hAdvm; Coptic: hh Phiom Enhah or sh Phiom nsari; Tigrinya: qayehhe baahri; Somali: Badda Cas) is a saltwater inlet of the Indian Ocean. It extends about 930 miles from its source in Africa to its outlet into the Arabian Gulf near the city of Jeddah. The sea covers an area of about 266,000 square miles and has a maximum depth of 4,450 feet. Its average depth is 1,500 feet.
Its name comes from the red soil found on its shores. Ships sailing between Africa and Asia used to sail along the southern edge of the continent called "Somalia" because the ocean there was red with clay deposits left by the overflow of the Nile River.
The term "Red Sea" is also used for other bodies of water in several countries. For example, the Red Sea is part of the Great Salt Lake in Utah, United States. The Red Sea is also one of the world's largest seaways and connects two major continents: Africa and Asia. It is about 250 miles long and up to 18 miles wide at its widest point.
In addition to being a sea, the Red Sea can also be considered part of a larger body of water called the Arabian Sea.
The Red Sea Project's unparalleled size of planning and construction means that the project is always moving ahead. New collaborations are being created, contracts are being signed, and milestones are being met. Check this website and these pages on a frequent basis for the most up-to-date information and to track our progress.
What is the purpose of the Red Sea Project? The main goal of the Red Sea Project is to provide safe, reliable, affordable access to transport by sea for people and cargo between Africa and Asia through the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Additional goals include promoting environmental protection and community development in the region.
Who is funding the Red Sea Project? The Red Sea Project is funded by several governments and international organizations. Some of the funders include: the Italian government's Foreign Affairs Office, the German government's Development Cooperation Department, and the European Commission.
When will the Red Sea Project be completed? We expect to complete construction of the first section of the pipeline in 2015 and begin operating it the following year. It is estimated that the project will cost around $3 billion and take about three years to build.
Will there be oil spills if the Red Sea Project goes ahead? Yes. The Red Sea is one of the world's most active seismic zones with many volcanoes and reefs causing it to sink dramatically over time. This makes it prone to oil spills from drilling or damage from storms.
The governments of Israel and Jordan have agreed to co-fund a pipeline that would transport water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea as an example of regional cooperation. Environmentalists are concerned that red sea water may wreak havoc on the Dead Sea's fragile ecosystem, changing salinity and perhaps boosting evaporation. The Israeli government has proposed building several small dams along the border with Jordan to help supply water to the Dead Sea.
The agreement between Israel and Jordan represents the first time that the two countries have cooperated on such a project. It is also the first time in decades that Israel and Jordan have reached an agreement on climate change issues.
"This is a historic agreement that will benefit the people of Israel and Jordan," said Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. "It demonstrates that cooperation between Israel and its neighbors is possible."
Jordan depends on the Red Sea for most of its freshwater supply and any increase in the amount of seawater entering the basin could have serious consequences for Jordan's economy and environment. Overuse of groundwater in Jordan has led to a significant decline in surface water levels, which helps protect the country's crops from drought but also puts it at risk from flooding. Climate change is expected to only make matters worse: warmer temperatures will lead to faster runoff from the rainforest soil burden and increased frequency of heavy rainfall events.
In addition to cooperating on water management, Israel and Jordan have worked together to combat desertification in both countries.
The Red Sea and the Indian Ocean are linked by the shallow and narrow sill of Bab-el-Mandeb (137 meters deep and 29 kilometers wide) and the Gulf of Aden. The Red Sea stretches about 2,000 kilometers from its southern end at Bab-el-Mandeb until it splits into two smaller gulfs, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba. The Indian Ocean is almost five times as large as the Red Sea.
The only way to connect them is through a series of channels between Djibouti and Yemen. These channels include the Bab el-Mandeb Strait, the Gulf of Aden, the Somali Basin, and the Arabian Sea.
The Red Sea plays an important role in global climate change because it is a major conduit for heat-trapping carbon dioxide from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere. As such, changes to its environment have significant effects on sea level and ocean chemistry. Climate models predict that if carbon emissions continue to increase, then the average temperature of the Red Sea will rise and it could lead to more intense rainfall events and larger floods. This could cause land areas near the sea to become more humid which would help grow more plants and trees, which would then take up some of the carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere.
The connections between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean have been used for trade by humans for many years. But only in the past few decades has modern technology made it possible to travel between these regions efficiently.