These four subsystems are referred to as "spheres." They are the "lithosphere" (land), "hydrosphere" (water), "biosphere" (living things), and "atmosphere" (air).
The lithosphere is the large solid earth's surface, including the crust and uppermost part of the mantle. Lithosphere includes all continents, oceans, and islands. The hydrosphere is the volume of water that fills the space between the lithosphere and the biosphere. The biosphere is the layer of Earth where life exists, consisting of the land and ocean ecosystems, as well as their interaction with each other and with atmospheric gases. The atmosphere is the layer of gas that surrounds and protects the planet Earth. It forms a protective blanket around the planet and plays an important role in determining the climate on Earth.
Lithosphere: The lithosphere is made up of two very different types of rocks: continental crust and oceanic crust. Continental crust makes up most of the earth's surface; it is very old material that was once part of a larger body like a continent or island. Oceanic crust is much younger than its continental counterpart and lies deep beneath continents. It extends from about 250 miles (400 km) below the sea floor to about 1500 miles (2500 km), where it encounters tectonic plates.
The four spheres are the geosphere (all of Earth's rocks), the hydrosphere (all of Earth's water), the atmosphere (all of Earth's gases), and the biosphere (all the living things on Earth). Each sphere has its own unique characteristics, but they all interact with each other. Changes in any one place affects all others.
Earth's surface is made up of two distinct regions: land and ocean. Sea water covers 70% of the planet and is important for many reasons. First, it is the source of oxygen for the planet. Without oxygen, our planet would be like Mars today. Second, salt comes from the sea. About 98% of the salt in Earth's oceans was formed by volcanoes, but the remaining 2% is from the decomposition of organic matter that floats in ocean waters.
On land, there is also much diversity. There are forests with trees that can grow as high as 100 feet, such as the redwood. There are deserts with nothing growing except certain types of bacteria. There are ice caps even in the middle of summer. The world is a very dynamic place with changes going on all the time.
Living things play an important role in the environment because they use energy from the sun to break down chemicals in order to live. These chemicals become nutrients that help plants grow.
The geosphere is divided into four subsystems: the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere. Because these subsystems interact with one another and with the biosphere, they work together to control the climate, activate geological processes, and influence life on Earth.
The lithosphere includes all of a planet's crust except for the oceanic crust. It forms a protective shell that encloses most planets' interiors. The lithosphere is made up of many plates that move over hot spots in their cores. As plates move over these hot spots, they melt, creating deep cracks that allow water to flow down into the mantle. This is why you often find more volcanic activity near the surface of a planet than expected from its core temperature.
The hydrosphere is the part of a planet that contains water. On Earth, this is almost all the planet except for ice caps and deserts. The hydrosphere can be as small as an ocean basin or as large as all of space itself.
The cryosphere is the part of a planet that contains frozen water or other substances. These include glaciers, ice shelves, frozen lakes, and permafrost. A planet's cryosphere changes over time as snow and ice change to liquid water and back again.
The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds a planet and allows life to exist on it.
The biosphere consists of the lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. The lithosphere forms the surface of the planet and contains its major rock types: granite, gneiss, marble, sandstone, shale, and slate. It also includes much of the ocean floor and some parts of the ice caps. The atmosphere comprises the gas that surrounds the Earth, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and other gases. It can be found in every part of the world except for Antarctica. The hydrosphere is the portion of the biosphere that is made up of water. This includes oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, and frozen water as well as vapor in the air when it's snowing outside. The term "biosphere" was first used by Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky in 1926. He was a Russian scientist who studied the effects of organisms activity on the geology of planets.
A brainly! You scored well enough to know that the Biosphere consists of three major components: the Lithosphere, the Atmosphere, and the Hydrosphere. The Biosphere is important because it provides life with all it needs to survive. If any one of these elements were to disappear, many species would be killed off.