Overexploitation of resources and deforestation have resulted in the degradation of natural ecosystems. Natural disasters include earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, forest fires, droughts, and so on. Pesticides and other pollutants like hydrocarbons and poisonous heavy metals. From industrial activities are also responsible for the loss of biodiversity.
Class 11, Science, Nature's Way: Biodiversity is the variety of life. Living organisms evolve through reproduction and inheritance of traits from their parents. Diversity comes from differences among individuals of a single species, or within populations of similar individuals. It is found in everything from flowers to forests, and includes varieties such as variegated plants and colored feathers. Biodiversity underpins all forms of life; without it, there would be no evolution, no human civilization, and probably not even life as we know it. Over time, this diversity provides us with many benefits, including nutritious food, clean air, and medicines.
In conclusion, biodiversity is lost due to overexploitation of resources and deforestation. Natural disasters include earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, forest fires, droughts, and heat waves.
Natural disasters usually reduce biodiversity. He can either kill species directly or ruin their habitats, preventing them from living in the location where the threat happened. For example, forest fires destroy habitat for bird and insect species. Flooding and landslides also cause death and damage property, causing people to move away from threatened areas. Over time, this may lead to local extinctions.
Catastrophic events can also influence biodiversity by triggering evolutionary changes in species populations. If a disaster causes many individuals of one species die, there won't be as many of that species around to reproduce later on. This leads to evolution through natural selection: the most suited organisms will survive and reproduce more often than those who are less fit. This is called "selective extinction" and it can happen even if many of the victims of a catastrophe are able to recover quickly because they have friends or family members who can help them out. For example, after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed over 150,000 people, only two species became extinct. However, evidence suggests that several other species may have been affected but were not yet known about. This shows that although most species tend to recover quickly after a disaster, some may not make it back.
Last, but not least, catastrophic events can cause migration patterns in species populations.
These include changes in land use, climate change, exotic species, overfishing, and pollution. Changes in land use are important in creating new habitat for species to live in. For example, if there is more farmland and less forest, this will allow for more open space for animals to live in. Climate change affects how many species can live in a place because they need specific temperatures for their habitats to be suitable. For example, if the temperature increases too much or decreases too much, some species will be able to live here that couldn't before. Exotic species are foreign animals that are introduced into an area with no predators or competitors to eat them. This can cause competition between the native animals and the exotic ones, which can lead to death of the natives. Overfishing means that fishermen are catching too many fish, so there aren't enough left for other animals to eat. This can also cause competition between the fish and the animals who depend on them for food. Pollution refers to anything that causes damage to the environment, such as dumping chemicals into water sources or burning fossil fuels. This can affect how many species can live in an area because it can destroy their homes or contaminate their food.
Biodiversity is the variety of life on earth.
When existing creatures in the ecosystem are relocated or exterminated, entire habitats become functionally incapable of supporting the species present; biodiversity is diminished in this process. Habitat loss is the leading cause of species extinction globally. Even when threatened species are protected, such as within national parks, their survival depends on the health of their habitat.
Habitat loss can occur through human activity such as deforestation, soil degradation, and over-hunting, or due to natural processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and flooding. Whatever the cause, without suitable habitat, many species will go extinct. Organisms depend on healthy habitats for food, shelter, energy resources, etc., so when these important things disappear, so does much of the diversity we want to protect.
In addition to losing valuable resources, humans also lose sight of how important some species are for life on Earth. Insects are needed for cleaning up waste and controlling pests, so they're vital to our ability to live sustainably. They also provide essential nutrients for plants to grow and animals to eat. If we didn't have bats to control insects harmful to fruits and vegetables, for example, then these foods would be eaten by other organisms which aren't as able to resist pesticides. Without insects, we wouldn't be able to survive.
When a habitat is destroyed, the carrying capacity for indigenous plants, animals, and other species is lowered, causing populations to dwindle and, in some cases, extinction. Perhaps the most serious hazard to species and biodiversity is habitat loss. The more land that is used for agriculture or developed into towns and cities, the less space is left for nature to recover its balance after human disturbances have passed.
Habitat destruction affects all species, not just those considered valuable to humans. Scientists believe that as many as 85 percent of plant and animal species are going extinct at a rate 100 times faster than natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, and volcanoes. The main cause of this rapid decline is the conversion of land for agricultural use. When this land is used for crops, it loses much of its natural vegetation and becomes vulnerable to erosion and flooding. This can be a particular problem in areas where soil degradation is already a concern. Agricultural practices contribute to climate change, too. The increased use of fertilizers and herbicides results in more CO2 being released into the atmosphere and causes water shortages by removing soil nutrients from food chains.
In conclusion, habitat destruction is one of the biggest threats to biodiversity. Biodiversity is important because it helps ecosystems function properly and provides us with many benefits.
The primary reasons of the extinction of many forms of life on Earth Pollution, habitat loss, poaching, alien species introduction, overexploitation of favoured species, climate change, and natural catastrophes are all causes contributing to biodiversity loss (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Causes of biodiversity loss. Copyright © 2010 Kew Science. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
Extinction is defined as the permanent removal of a species from the planet. Because humans rely on biodiversity for many important products and services, it is important to understand why some species disappear and others don't. The main reason for the extinction of many species is being made extinct themselves. Humans are responsible for the extinction of many species through hunting, harvesting of resources, pollution, and the introduction of invasive species. Climate change can also play a role in causing extinction events, such as the disappearance of large numbers of species close together in time and space.
Habitat destruction is another major factor behind species extinctions. Habitats are areas of suitable environmental conditions that allow different species to live together in mutual benefit. Species need different types of habitats to survive - trees need woodlands, birds need forests, etc. Human activity has been taking away at least one type of habitat every year - agricultural land is used for food production, which requires a lot of water and chemicals, reducing its ability to support other species.