The seven model ecosystems are as follows: 1 a mature rain forest with over 90 tropical tree species, 2 a 2600 m3 ocean, 3 forested swamps dominated by mangrove trees, 4 a tropical savanna grassland, 5 a 1400 m2 coastal fog desert, 6 three desert hillslope grass-shrubland landscapes, and 7 Biosphere 2.org/research/ecosystems/>.
Scientists have been able to recreate these unique environments in the United States and Europe. The experiments being conducted within them should help us learn more about how nature functions independently of human intervention and how different types of ecosystems contribute to maintaining life on Earth.
Biosphere 2 was constructed in 1991 by stacking two large dome shapes made of fiberglass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic. It was located near Oracle, Arizona and covered an area of 7000 square meters (77,000 sq ft). The domes were large enough to contain eight separate ecological systems - four inside each dome. The two main habitats provided fresh water and food for hundreds of people during their stay inside the station.
Scientists from around the world visited Biosphere 2 to study its unique ecosystems. In particular, researchers wanted to know how the atmosphere, soil, and plants interacted with each other and whether humans could live in isolation for an extended period of time. They also sought answers to questions such as "Are forests important for climate regulation?" and "How do animals interact with each other within their ecosystems?".
Examples of ecosystems are: agroecosystems, aquatic ecosystems, coral reefs, deserts, forests, human ecosystems, littoral zones, marine ecosystems, prairies, rainforests, savannas, steppes, taiga, tundra, urban ecosystems and others. An ecosystem is the complex of living organisms and their physical surroundings that interact with each other to sustain life. Ecosystems provide us with necessary resources such as food, air, water, and soil, and they also play an important role in maintaining global climate and biodiversity.
An ecosystem can be defined as the total community of living organisms within a specific area. This area could be as small as a single plant or tree species growing in its natural habitat on a mountainside, up to entire continents or oceans where similar communities of plants and animals exist. The interaction between the members of this community is essential for their survival. The term "eco" comes from the Greek word oikos, which means "home" or "house". Our planet is home to many different types of ecosystems, which vary in size from small patches of vegetation in a park to vast tropical forests. It is well known that healthy ecosystems have profound effects on the quality of our air and water, control pests, and provide us with valuable materials such as timber, dyes, drugs, and fibers. However, these same ecosystems can also cause harm if they are destroyed or altered through human activity.
Tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous woodland, tropical rain forest, grassland, and deserts are the six basic terrestrial ecosystems. Each one has unique plants and animals that live in them.
Terrestrial ecosystems are defined by what uses their primary production (growth) supplies energy for living things. All ecosystems must obtain their energy from somewhere other than solar radiation. The two main sources are the consumption of organic matter and the conversion of geothermal heat into mechanical work by volcanoes and earthquakes. Organic matter can be consumed by microorganisms or decomposed further by heterotrophic organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and algae. Geothermal heat is converted into mechanical work in the form of steam produced by sintering rocks deep inside a volcano or an earthquake. Both tundra and desert ecosystems get most of their energy from sunlight, but they lack many plant species found in more fertile habitats. Desert plants have evolved ways to use less water by reducing the amount needed for growth and reproduction. Some species become dormant during dry seasons or move underground where moisture is available only with great difficulty. Others rely on small amounts of rainfall or snow melt for survival.
Plants grow using the carbon dioxide we breathe out and the water we drink out.