Valleys are low-lying sections of land that have been scraped and wiped away by the combined forces of gravity, water, and ice. Some dangle, while others are hollow. Mountain valleys, for example, feature near-vertical cliffs and a small channel, but the slopes are shallow and the channel is vast on the plains.
Valley language is commonly used to describe the landscape within an area, such as "valley view." The word comes from Latin via French, and means "a hollow or depression, especially one between hills or mountains."
In science, a valley is any narrow, elongated stretch of land with steep sides and a bottom that drops away sharply. Scientists use this term when discussing the characteristics of a planet or moon. For example, they might say that the Valley of Mars has features similar to those of Earth's Moon. Or that the Crater Valley on Venus is about 30 miles (50 km) long and 3 miles (5 km) wide.
In astronomy, a valley is any region on a planet or satellite where higher ground can be seen emerging from beneath lower ground. On Earth, these regions tend to be flat or gently sloping, but they could also be very deep. The word is also used to describe any region within a planet or satellite where rocks of different heights are found close together. On Earth, these regions usually occur near the edges of large plates that move apart from each other as they collide with other plates or rock formations.
The Valley is a long, narrow dip on the Earth's surface. Valleys are typically drained by rivers and can be found on a relatively level plain or between ranges of hills or mountains. The word "valley" comes from the Latin word vallis, meaning "a hollow between high ground".
A depression is a geographical feature characterized as a low area surrounded by higher land. Depressions can be formed by erosion, volcanic activity, or glacial movement. Flooding may also cause depressions to form in previously flat landscapes. Depressions can be very large - such as oceans or lakes - or quite small. They can be permanent or temporary.
Volcanoes often create depressions at their centers called calderas. Calderas are usually quite large (100s of kilometers across) and have steep walls made of hardened lava. As the volcano erodes away its outer wall, more shallow valleys are exposed within the caldera. These are known as pre-caldera valleys. Once the volcano has erupted and constructed a new crater rim, then it becomes impossible for any further volcanic activity to occur within that system. The previous caldera will eventually be filled in with sediment or another volcano may emerge from within the existing one.
Depressions can also be caused by glaciers.
A valley is a lengthy dip or ditch on the surface of the Earth. It is frequently found between hill or mountain ranges. Rivers erode, or wear away, soil and rocks to generate the majority of valleys. This process can take hundreds or millions of years to complete. In the meantime, other factors may come into play as surfaces within or outside the valley are altered by natural processes such as wind-blown sand dunes or man-made activities such as mining or road construction.
Valley landsforms are the different shapes that result when rivers flow through rocky terrain. There are several types of valley landsforms, including cirques, gorges, ravines, and troughs. A landscape with many valleys is called a valley scene.
Valley scenes are common in mountainous regions where rivers flow down steep slopes into deeper pools or lakes. As the water flows over the edges of these depressions, it leaves behind deposits of rock and soil. With enough time, these features will be worn away by weathering forces to leave only the deepest valleys behind. The sides of these hollows often contain steep cliffs because large rocks or boulders are less likely to be carried away by the river than small ones. Streams with more even gradients usually have less dramatic landscapes because they do not drain as much rock material from above their reach.
Circles, craters, and pits are all caused by meteor impacts.
A valley is a long, low region that commonly runs between hills or mountains and has a river or stream that runs from one end to the other. Some valleys are produced as a result of glacial ice erosion. These glaciers may persist in valleys in high alpine locations or in polar regions. In more temperate regions they usually disappear when the last glacier retreats each year uneventfully about 11,500 years ago. But if the retreat is interrupted by a landslide or similar event, then a valley will remain behind.
The word "valley" comes from the Old English vallis, meaning "a ravine or trench," which in turn comes from the Latin vallis, "a gully," which in turn comes from the Indo-European root wah-, "to cut."
A valley can be anything from a narrow cleft in a rock face to a deep chasm with steep sides. It may even be an open space between two large buildings. However, most people think of a valley as a relatively flat area surrounded by high land. This is because most valleys are formed as hollows out of flat surfaces such as a plain or a glaciated plateau.
Valleys may differ greatly in size, from less than 1 square mile (km) up to larger ones such as the American Midwest or California Valleys.