Fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillum, Monascus, Trichoderma, and Laetiporus have been shown to generate quinones, anthraquinones, Rubropuntamine, Rubropuntatin, Ankaflavin, Monascin, b-carotene, and a variety of other pigments responsible for red, purple, yellow, brown, orange, and green. Some of these colors are visible under a microscope.
In addition to these microscopic colors, some fungi are also capable of producing larger molecules called melanins that can be black, dark blue, or gray. Melanins are complex polymers composed of units derived from amino acids (especially tyrosine). They provide protection against ultraviolet light and toxic chemicals, and may also play a role in how easily fungi can be removed by washing. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, and Candida albicans are examples of fungi that produce melanin.
Fungi are classified into three groups on the basis of their pigment production: brown, white, and grayish-white. The colors of most common fungi are listed below. Remember that these are only colors seen under a microscope; fungal cells don't use DNA to replicate themselves, so they don't need to reproduce like bacteria do. Fungi grow by extending branches called hyphae. These branches cannot see color, so all fungi appear white under normal laboratory conditions. However, some fungi contain compounds that give them their various colors.
Light regulates critical physiological and morphological responses in fungus. Fungi can perceive near-ultraviolet, blue, green, red, and far-red light with up to 11 photoreceptors and signaling cascades, allowing them to regulate a wide amount of the genome and adapt to environmental conditions. Light also plays an important role in fungal growth and development, including conidiation, cellular differentiation, and enzyme production.
Conidiogenesis is the formation of conidia. It is an important mechanism for fungi to spread through their environment. There are two major types of conidiogenesis: autoconidiogenesis and heteroconidiogenesis. Autoconidiogenesis means that the fungus produces conidia all by itself. This is how most airborne spores are produced. Heteroconidiogenesis means that the fungus produces conidia in groups called conidiophores. These are structures that grow out of hyphae and branch repeatedly until they release many spores at one time. Some plants protect themselves from pathogens by producing compounds that suppress conidiogenesis. For example, onions produce sulfur compounds that prevent fungus from forming spores, so they are considered vegetative organisms. On the other hand, potatoes produce beta-glucans which make it difficult for fungi to form conidia, so they are considered semi-vegetative organisms.
In conclusion, yes, fungi do respond to light!
Aspergillus Aspergillus is black on the outside and white-ish or yellow on the inside. There are around 180 species of it, but aspergillus niger is frequently seen growing both in nature and in wet parts of dwellings. This is because it is easy to grow and produce spores, so it is often found in places where other fungi aren't able to live.
Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxins, which are toxic substances that can cause cancer if they are not removed from food. For this reason, all forms of aspergillus should be avoided in food products.
Aspergillus terreus is commonly found in soil with much animal matter or decaying vegetable matter. It usually grows within the soil near plants roots. When exposed to sunlight or air, the fungus will sporulate (produce spores). The spores are spread by wind when leaves fall into fields or when animals step in them. Farmers need to protect themselves from exposure to the fungus by using protective clothing and equipment. Also, keep livestock away from infected areas to prevent them from eating the fungus.
Aspergillus ustus is commonly found in soils rich in organic matter such as manure or compost. It doesn't require light to grow and can survive for several years in soil without feeding. This is why clean up after gardening or farming is important to prevent more fungus from spreading.