Resources for water Many Italian cities get their drinking water from springs and groundwater. For example, springs supply 97 percent of Rome's drinking water, with wells providing the remaining 3 percent. Milan gets its drinking water from 433 wells in the city's surroundings. Other Italian cities, on the other hand, derive the majority of their drinking water from rivers. For example, Venice gets most of its water from 118 small canals and four large aqueducts that feed into the Venetian Lagoon. These resources are threatened by overexploitation and contamination due to industrial activity and urban expansion.
Italy's lakes provide another source of water for the country's cities. In fact, several islands across Italy are completely surrounded by water. These island regions depend on reservoirs and pipelines to obtain water for drinking and agriculture. Most of these resources are supplied by glaciers or rainfall. The only major exception is Lake Garda, which is fed primarily by the River Adriatic.
Finally, Italy's geography provides it with ample opportunities for water conservation. The country is divided into a number of climate zones, so there's always going to be at least one part of Italy where you'll find enough rain or snow to meet local demands. Indeed, some regions even rely on precipitation rather than imported water because they have sufficient natural resources locally. For example, Lazio has more than 500 million cubic meters of groundwater reserves. This is almost twice as much as the amount of water in all of England's coastal waters combined!
For example, Florence obtains the majority of its drinking water from the Arno River, and the Naples area gets its drinking water from the Gari River via the Western Campania Aqueduct.
The quality of Milan's drinking water is good. The main concern is with nitrates, which are a sign that the water contains nitrogen from either animal waste or fertilizer applications. However, the concentration of nitrates in Milan's drinking water is below the maximum allowed by law. The government provides regular updates on water quality throughout the city.
Nitrates have become a problem in some parts of Europe. In Germany, for example, there are restrictions on the amount of nitrogen in drinking water that can come from agricultural sources. Cities such as Munich obtain most of their drinking water from local breweries or wine makers. The nitrogen in beer or wine helps promote growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. But if the nitrogen comes from corn or other sources, then the body processes more oxygen when it converts the nitrogen into ammonia, which can lead to the smell of skunking or something similar if the person doesn't wash off the corn before drinking the water.
In addition to nitrates, there are also traces of metals in Milan's drinking water. These include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, nickel, and zinc.
Italy has a lot of fresh water resources. In Italy, water is available to 100 percent of the urban population and 97 percent of the rural population. 20% of the bathing water does not meet bathing water requirements. Sanitation is available to 70% of the population. Wastewater is treated before being released into rivers or other bodies of water.
In Africa, sanitation is neglected by both government and society. There are several reasons for this: first of all, there is no financial incentive to improve sanitation. People cannot benefit from it financially, so there is no demand for its implementation. Also, there is no political will to implement sanitary reforms because of the absence of any effective action against littering and pollution. Finally, there is a lack of knowledge about the importance of hygiene for health care systems and people's lives.
Some countries have taken initiative in addressing environmental issues. For example, Japan has established itself as a leader in environmental technology with initiatives such as the "Cool Biz" program that promotes energy efficiency in businesses. China has made great efforts to control pollution in recent years, especially after the severe damage caused by the 2008 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. India has demonstrated strong commitment to conservation through its adoption of sustainable development goals.
Most Italian towns feature continually running public drinking fountains—Rome has over 2,000--with practically all of the drinkable water being wasted into storm drains. However, since 2007, rules have required that certain urban fountains refilter effluent for public consumption. These new filters are effective in removing many contaminants from the water.
Overall, Italy's water supply is of high quality. The only major city in Italy where you should not drink the tap water is Venice, because of its famous purification process. Other cities use different methods to treat their water, which results in some level of contamination. You should also avoid drinking water from street taps or those inside buildings that have not been treated to remove bacteria and other harmful substances.
The best advice when traveling in Italy is to drink bottled water instead of using tap water unless you know it is safe. Even in cities where water is reportedly clean, studies have shown that it can contain viruses or other pollutants not detected by official tests.
However, there are times when the tap water is actually safer than what you would get at a shop. For example, if you're visiting rural areas where food safety is not a concern, then drinking water from the tap could be a better option than buying packaged products that usually include water that has been transported long distances.