Floods were the most often occuring natural catastrophe, with 151 occurrences. The floods killed almost 3,000 individuals and harmed 57.7 million people, causing $8 billion in damage (ADRC, 2009). Flooding wreaked damage in several nations, as illustrated in Table 1. Within the United States, flooding was responsible for $5 billion in damage National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), 2010 and 22 deaths (the NFIP pays out claims regardless of who is at fault). Hurricane-related losses accounted for $92.5 million of the total global flood loss amount.
Table 1: World's Top 10 Flooding Nations. Rank Country Population 1 India 1.34 billion 2 China 1.37 billion 3 Bangladesh 160 million 4 Pakistan 175 million 5 Uganda 65 million 6 Liberia 60 million 7 Central African Republic 50 million 8 Democratic Republic of Congo 70 million 9 Haiti 33 million 10 North America 25 million
Earthquakes are another common disaster; they affect virtually all countries, but they can be expected to happen once every few hundred years on average. There are two types of earthquakes: sudden earthquakes occur without any prior warning signs, while gradual movements of Earth's plates cause seismic activity that leads up to a major earthquake. Sudden earthquakes kill about 94% of those who die in them and injure nearly all those who survive.
Flooding has been by far the most common natural catastrophe in the previous 20 years, accounting for 43 percent of all reported incidents. Between 1995 and 2015, the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Events reported 3,062 natural flood disasters in a collaborative study with the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Floods are also the costliest disaster, with an average loss of $732 million per incident.
Cyclones and hurricanes are next on the list, each responsible for about 10 percent of total floods. The CRIRIVIM report did not include data on drought-related disasters because national statistics on these events are not published separately. However, based on reports from national meteorological services, cyclones and hurricanes likely account for less than 1 percent of all flood losses worldwide.
Tsunamis are rare but deadly events that can occur anywhere in the world at any time. They are driven by seismic activity (such as an earthquake) or volcanic eruptions, which disrupt water channels causing massive waves to sweep away everything in their path. Since 1900, more than 15,000 people have been killed by tsunamis. Although they are rare, they are very damaging and costly: the total damage caused by tsunamis in the past 200 years has been about $120 billion.
Fires are another frequent cause of death and destruction.
Floods are the most common natural catastrophe in India, accounting for 52% of all calamities, followed by cyclones (30%), landslides (10%), earthquakes (5%), and droughts (5%). (2 per cent). Floods affect the entire country from north to south as well as east to west. They are caused by heavy rains that overwhelm riverbanks and causes floods in the rivers themselves. The Himalayas block the monsoon winds that carry moisture from the oceans into India. As a result, most of India is covered in water for part of the year.
The deadliest flood in Indian history occurred in 1924 and killed approximately 500,000 people. It started when the River Ganges overflowed its banks due to excessive rain. People living along the river's edge failed to take precautions because they couldn't imagine such a disaster could happen again.
In 1998, another major flood struck India causing enormous damage and loss of life. This time the culprit was not rainfall but a tropical storm called "Nargis". It battered Burma (now known as Myanmar) with hurricane-force winds and 20-foot high waves that swept across India's eastern coast, killing at least 18,000 people. Another 140,000 were left homeless.
In May 1975, a powerful earthquake hit northern India. The death toll exceeded 10,000 people.
The cost and fatality distribution by catastrophe type Severe storms are responsible for the most billion-dollar catastrophe occurrences (128) yet have the lowest average event cost ($2.2 billion). Tropical cyclones and flooding are the second and third most common types of events (52 and 33, respectively). Flooding causes the most damage per incident ( $170 million on average), while tropical cyclones cause the most total damage (average $35 billion).
Floods can be caused by heavy rain or snow melt. They occur when there is enough moisture in the air to support precipitation that falls as drops large enough to pierce the surface of the ground or fill a body of water. The term "floodplain" refers to the area surrounding a location where floodwaters could accumulate. The federal government's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) provides coverage for more than 20 million residential properties across the country at risk for flooding. Under this program, homeowners must buy insurance because it is too expensive to adequately protect against floods without forcing consumers into a financial sinkhole. The NFIP pays out millions of dollars each year to flood victims.
Tropical cyclones are large rotating masses of air within the Earth's atmosphere, characterized by strong winds and low pressure at their center. They can be permanent or temporary features. A tropical cyclone will usually form in the tropics, but they can develop outside the tropics if they receive sufficient energy from the sun or a heat source.
The ten deadliest natural disasters by highest estimated death toll, excluding epidemics and famines,
|Rank||Death toll (Highest estimate)||Event|
|1.||4,000,000||1931 China floods|
|2.||2,000,000||1887 Yellow River flood|
|3.||830,000||1556 Shaanxi earthquake|
|4.||655,000||1976 Tangshan earthquake|