Smog is one example of air pollution. Smog is formed by a combination of smoke and sulfur dioxide produced by huge volumes of coal burning in a region. Smog can cause serious health problems if you are exposed to it for long periods of time. It can reduce the lung capacity of people who work with or live near coal-fired power plants.
Water pollution is the contamination of water with substances that are harmful to your health. The two main types of water pollution are chemical and biological. Chemical pollution results from the release of chemicals into water bodies through industrial processes or agricultural activities. Biological pollution occurs when bacteria or other organisms contaminate water supplies. Water pollution can be acute or chronic. Acute water pollution requires immediate action to remove or neutralize the source of the contamination. Chronic water pollution requires ongoing monitoring of levels of contamination over time because it cannot be removed easily.
Earthquakes, floods, and droughts are examples of natural disasters that can lead to environmental damage. Natural disasters can cause physical changes to the Earth's surface (e.g., landslide), destruction of wildlife habitats, and loss of human life. They can also lead to environmental damage through mud slides, flood waters, and debris flows. Environmental damage caused by natural disasters can affect the health of humans and animals living in affected areas.
Smog is the name given to a mixture of pollutants that results from the partial combustion of organic material, such as fossil fuels or wood, with oxygen present in the atmosphere. The two main components of smog are nitrogen oxides (NOx), which include nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter (PM). Other components include carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and traces of ammonia (NH3), hydrocarbons, and heavy metals.
Smog forms when it's hot out and there is a lot of moisture in the air. This can happen at any time of year, but it's most common during the summer months. If enough fuel is burned, then some fraction of the resulting CO will be converted into CO2, but most of it will be released as energy in the form of heat and light. Some of this heat will cause water molecules in the air to change state from liquid to gas, leading to additional emissions of NOx and PM. Light particles called aerosols are created as well-known chemical reactions occur between gases emitted from vehicles and other sources and the many different types of particles in the air.
Solid and liquid particles, as well as some gases floating in the air, contribute to air pollution. These particles and gases can be emitted by automobiles and trucks, factories, dust, pollen, mold spores, volcanoes, and wildfires. Aerosols are solid and liquid particles floating in our atmosphere. They are very small, often with an average size of less than 2 microns. There are three main types of aerosols in our atmosphere: mineral dust, smoke, and volcanic ash.
Mineral dust is made up of tiny particles that come from rocks exposed by erosion or torn apart by wind. As air moves over these rocks, it picks up their dust particles. Most of the time, the dust is not a problem. But if it is airborne for long enough, it will become suspended in the atmosphere where it can have an impact on climate change and human health.
Smoke is another type of aerosol that comes from burning materials such as trees, fossil fuels, and grasslands. It can be seen in the sky during periods of high fire activity in forests and savannas around the world. Smoke has several different compounds in it that affect how clouds form and what happens to them when they reach the ground. This can influence Earth's temperature through changes in reflection of light radiation.
Volcanoes also emit substances into the atmosphere that can have an impact on climate and human health.